Clinical Studies

1. Günaydin B, Cakici I, Soncul H et al. Does remote organ ischaemia trigger cardiac preconditioning during coronary artery surgery? Pharmacological Research 41;4:493- 496, 2000.

2. Kharbanda RK, Mortensen, White PA et al. Transient limb ischemia induces remote ischemic preconditioning in-vivo. Circulation 106:2881-2883, 2002.

3. Loukogeorgakis SP et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning provides early and late protection against endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans. JACC 46;3:450- 456, 2005.

4. Cheung MMH et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on children undergoing cardiac surgery. JACC 47;11:2277-2282, 2006.

5. Iliodromitis EK, Kyrzopoulos S, Paraskevaidis IA, Kolocassides KG, Adamopoulos S, Karavolias G, Kremastinos DT. Increased C reactive protein and cardiac enzyme levels after coronary stent implantation. Is there protection by remote ischaemic preconditioning? Heart 92;12:1821-1826, 2006.

6. Hausenloy DJ et al. Effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning on myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 370(9587):575-579, 2007.

7. Zhou K, Yang B, Zhou XM et al. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on the flow pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery in normal subjects. Int J Cardiol 122;3:250-251, 2007.

8. Kimura M et al. Repetition of ischemic preconditioning augments endothelium- dependent vasodilatation in humans: role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and endothelial progenitor cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:1403-1410, 2007.

9. Ali ZA et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces myocardial and renal injury after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation 116:I98-I105, 2007.

10. Loukogeorgakis SP et al. Transient limb ischemia induces remote preconditioning and remote postconditioning in humans by a KATP channel dependent mechanism. Circulation 116:1386-1395, 2007.

11. Hoole SP et al. Cardiac remote ischemic preconditioning in coronary stenting (CRISP Stent) study: a prospective, randomized control trial. Circulation 119:820-827, 2009.

12. Venugopal V et al. Remote Ischaemic preconditioning reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cold blood cardioplegia: a randomized controlled trial. Heart 95:1567-1571, 2009. 

13. Walsh SR et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning for renal and cardiac protection during endovascular aneurysm repair: a randomized controlled trial. J Endovasc Therapy 16;6:680-689, 2009.

14. Okorie MI et. al. Role of endogenous opioids in remote ischemic preconditioning in humans, abstract P109. Circulation 120:S1464, 2009.

15. Saxena P et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning stimulus decreases the expression of kinin receptors in human neutrophils. J Surg Res Nov 29 [Epub ahead of print] 2009.

16. Hoole SP, Khan SN, White PA, Heck PM, Kharbanda RK, Densem CG, Clarke SC, Shapiro LM, Schofield PM, O’Sullivan M, Dutka DP. Remote ischaemic pre-conditioning does not attenuate ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction in humans. Eur J Heart Failure 11;5:497- 505, 2009.

17. Yamamoto M, Seino Y, Kimata N, Inami T, Murakami D, Ohba T, Aoki S, IbukiC, Mizuno K. Remote ischemic preconditioning at percutaneous coronary intervention reduces minute myocardial injury: evaluation by high sensitivity troponin T and NT-proBNP assays. Circulation J 73(Suppl I):361, 2009.

18. Wenwu Z Limb Ischemic Preconditioning Reduces Heart and Lung Injury After an Open Heart Operation in Infants. Pediatric Cardiology 31:22-29, 2010.

19. Hu S et al. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on biochemical markers and neurologic outcomes in patients undergoing elective cervical decompression surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 22;1:46-52, 2010.

20. Shimizu M et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning decreases adhesion and selectively modifies functional responses in human neutrophils. Eur J Cardiovasc Prevention Reabilitation 158;1:155-161, 2010.

21. De Groot PCE. Ischemic preconditioning improves maximal performance in humans. Eur J Applied Physiol 108:141-146, 2010.

22. Li L, Luo W, Huang L, Zhang W, Gao Y, Jiang H, Zhang C, Long L, Chen S. Remote Perconditioning Reduces Myocardial Injury in Adult Valve Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial. [Epub ahead of print] J Surg Res 2010.

23. Rentoukas I et al. Cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic periconditioning in primary percutaneous coronary intervention; enhancement by opioid action. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv 3:49-55, 2010.

24. Botker HE et al. Remote ischaemic conditioning before hospital admission, as a complement to angioplasty, and effect on myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomized trial. Lancet 375:727-34, 2010.

25. Murphy T, Walsh PM, Doran PP, Mulhall KJ. Transcriptional responses in the adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion injury: a study of the effect of ischaemic preconditioning in total knee arthroplasty patients. J Translational Medicine 8:46, 2010. 

26. Thielmann M, Kottenberg E, Boengler K, Raffelsieper C, Neuhaeuser M, Peters J, Jakob H and Heusch G. Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass surgery with crystalloid cardioplegic arrest. Basic Res Cardiol [Epub ahead of print] 2010.

27. Walsh SR, Nouraei SA Reza, Tang T, Sadat U, Carpenter R, Gaunt M. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Cerebral and Cardiac Protection During Carotid Endarterectomy: Results From a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial. Vasc Endovascular Surg [E-pub ahead of print], 2010.

28. Lin LN, Wang LR, Wang WT, Jin LL, Zhao XY, Zheng LP, Jin LD, Jiang LM, Xiong XQ. Ischemic Preconditioning Attenuates Pulmonary Dysfunction After Unilateral Thigh Tourniquet-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion. Anesth Analg 111(2):539-543, 2010.

29. Hong DM, Min J, Jeon Y, Bahk JH, Lim YJ. Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning and Postconditioning in Patients Undergoing OPCAB Surgery. Abstract A907, American Society of Anesthesiologists, 2010.

30. Ali N, Rizwi F, Iqbal A, Rashid A. Induced Remote Ischemic Pre-conditioning on Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 20(7):427-31, 2010.

31. Munk K, Andersen NH, Schmidt MR, Nielsen SS, Terkelsen CJ, Sloth E, Bøtker HE, Nielsen TT, Poulsen SH. Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Myocardial Infarct Patients Treated with Primary Angioplasty. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 3:656-662, 2010.

32. Wagner R, Piler P, Bedanova H, Adamek P, Grodecka L, Freiberger T. Myocardial injury is decreased by late remote ischaemic preconditioning and aggravated by tramadol in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Interactive Cardiovasc and Thor Surg 11:758-762, 2010.

33. Rahman IA, Mascaro JG, Steeds RP, Frenneaux MP et al. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Human Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: From Promise to Disappointment? Circulation 122:S53-S59, 2010.

34. Venugopal V, Laing CM, Ludman A, Yellon DM, Hausenloy D. Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Acute Kidney Injury in Nondiabetic Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Secondary Analysis of 2 Small Randomized Trials. Am J Kidney Dis [Epub ahead of print], 2010.

35. Memtsoudis SG, Valle AG, Jules-Elysse K, Poultsides L, Reid S, Starcher B, Ma Y, Sculco TP. Perioperative inflammatory response in total knee arthroplasty patients: impact of limb preconditioning. Reg Anesth Pain Med 35(5):412-6, 2010.

36. Luo W, Zhu M, Huang R, Zhang Y. A comparison of cardiac post-conditioning and remote pre-conditioning in paediatric cardiac surgery. Cardiol Young 25:1-5. [Epub ahead of print], 2011. 

37. Choi YS, Shim JK, Chan Kim J, Kang KS, Seo YH, Ahn KR, Kwak YL. Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on renal dysfunction after complex valvular heart surgery: A randomized controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 142;1:148-154, 2011.

38. Pedersen CM, Cruden NL, Schmidt MR, Lau C, Botker HE, Kharbanda RK, Newby DE. Remote ischemic preconditioning prevents systemic platelet activation associated with ischemiareperfusion injury in humans. J Thrombosis Haemostasis, 9;2:404-407, 2011.

39. Koca K, Yurttas Y, Cayci T, Bilgic S, Kaldirim U, Durusu M, Cekli Y, Ozkan H, Hanci V et al. The Role of Preconditioning and N-Acetylcysteine on Oxidative Stress Resulting From Tourniquet-Induced Ischemia-Reperfusion in Arthroscopic Knee Surgery. J Trauma Injury Infectious Disease 70;3:717-723, 2011.

40. Koch S, Katsnelson M, Dong C, Perez-Pinzon M. Remote Ischemic Limb Preconditioning After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Stroke 42;5:1387-1391, 2011.

41. Zimmerman RF, Ezeanuna PU, Kane JC, Cleland CD, Kempananjappa TJ, Lucas FL, Kramer RS. Ischemic preconditioning at a remote site prevents acute kidney injury in patients following cardiac surgery. Kidney International 80:861-867, 2011.

42. Lubbe JA, Toit D, Honiball EJ, Warren BL. Remote ischaemic preconditioning in peripheral artery endovascular intervention. Abstract. 2011 Annual meeting of World Federation of Vascular Societies, published 7/11/2011 by Internal Medicine News Digital Network, 2011.

43. Wu Q, Gui P, Wu J, Ding D, Purusram G, Dong N, Yao S. Effect of limb ischemic preconditioning on myocardial injury in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. Circ J, advanced publication online, 2011.

44. Pedersen CM, Schmidt MR, Barnes G, Botker HE, Kharbanda RK, Newby DE, Cruden NL. Bradykinin does not mediate remote ischaemic preconditioning or ischaemia- reperfusion injury in vivo in man. Heart 2011.

45. Zitta K, Meybohm P, Bein B et al. Serum from patients undergoing remote ischemic preconditioning protects cultured human intestinal cells from hypoxia-induced damage: Involvement of matrixmetalloproteinase-2 and -9. [Epub ahead of print] Mol Med 2011.

46. Xie JJ, Liao XL, Chen WG, Huang DD et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing heart valve surgery: randomised controlled trial. Heart [Epub ahead of print] 2011.

47. Kraemer R, Lorenzen J, Kabbani M, Herold C, Busche M, Vogt PM, Knobloch K. Acute effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cutaneous microcirculation - a controlled prospective cohort study. BMC Surgery 11:32, 2011.

48. Kottenberg E, Thielmann M, Bergmann L, Heine T, Jacob H, Heusch G, Peters J. Protection by remote ischemic preconditioning during coronary artery bypass graft surgery with isoflurane but not propofol a clinical trial. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica [Epub ahead of print], 2011. 

49. Lee JH, Park YH, Byon HJ, Kim HS, Kim CS, Kim JT. Effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning on ischaemicreperfusion injury in pulmonary hypertensive infants receiving ventricular septal defect repair. Br J Anaesth [Epub ahead of print], 2011.

50. Foster GP, Westerdahl DE, Foster LA, Hsu JV, Anholm JD. Ischemic preconditioning of the lower extremity attenuates the normal hypoxic increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 179(2-3):248-253, 2011.

51. Enko K, Nakamura K, Yunoki K, Miyoshi T, Akagi S, Yoshida M, Toh N, Sangawa M, Nishii N, Nagase S, Kohno K, Morita H, Kusano KF, Ito H. Intermittent arm ischemia induces vasodilatation of the contralateral upper limb. J Physiol Sci 61(6):507-513, 2011.

52. Moro L, Pedone C, Mondì A, Nunziata E, Antonelli Incalzi R. Effect of local and remote ischemic preconditioning on endothelial function in young people and healthy or hypertensive elderly people. Atherosclerosis 219;2:750-752, 2011.

53. Heusch G, Musiolik J, Kottenberg E, Peters J, Jakob H, Thielmann M. STAT5 Activation and Cardioprotection by Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Humans. Circ Res 110: 111- 115, 2012.

54. Lucchinetti E, Bestmann L, Feng J, Freidank H, Clanachan AS, Finegan BA, Zaugg M. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Applied during Isoflurane Inhalation Provides No Benefit to the Myocardium of Patients Undergoing On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Lack of Synergy or Evidence of Antagonism in Cardioprotection? Anesthesiology [Epub ahead of print], 2012

55. Kim JC, Shim JK, Lee S, Yoo YC, Yang SY, Kwak YL. Effect of combined remote ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning on pulmonary function in valvular heart surgery. Chest [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

56. Pedersen KR, Ravn HB, Povlsen JV, Schmidt MR, Erlandsen EJ, Hjortdal VE. Failure of remote ischemic preconditioning to reduce the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury in children undergoing operation for complex congenital heart disease: A randomized single-center study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 143:576-583, 2012.

57. Hong DM, Jeon Y, Lee CS, Kim HJ et al. Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning and Postconditioning in Patients Undergoing OPCAB Surgery. Circulation J [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

58. Pavione MA, Carmona F, de Castro M, Carlotti AP. Late remote ischemic preconditioning in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: A randomized controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

59. Lucchinetti E, Bestmann L, Feng J, Freidank H, Clanachan AS, Finegan BA, Zaugg M. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Applied during Isoflurane Inhalation Provides No Benefit to the Myocardium of Patients Undergoing On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Lack of Synergy or Evidence of Antagonism in Cardioprotection? Anesthesiology 116(2):296-310, 2012.

60. Lomivorotov VV, Shmyrev VA, Nepomnyaschih VA, et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning does not protect the heart in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery [Epub ahead of print], 2012. 

61. Krawczyk K, Suwalski G, Leszek G, Gołowicz J, Burnos Z, Szałański P, Hendzel P. Routine Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting improves results in controlled randomised prospective study. Abstract, ISMICS annual meeting, 2012.

62. Prasad A, Gössl M, Hoyt J, Lennon RJ, Polk L, Simari R, Holmes DR Jr, Rihal CS, Lerman A. Remote ischemic preconditioning immediately before percutaneous coronary intervention does not impact myocardial necrosis, inflammatory response and circulating endothelial progenitor cell counts. A single center randomized sham controlled trial. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

63. Hougaard KD, Hjort N, Zeidler D, Sørensen L, Nørgaard A, Thomsen RB, Jonsdottir K, Mouridsen K, Hansen TM, Cho TH, Nielsen TT, Bøtker HE, Ostergaard L, Andersen G. Remote ischemic perconditioning in thrombolysed stroke patients: Randomized study of activating endogenous neuroprotection - design and MRI measurements. Int J Stroke [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

64. Er F, Nia AM, Dopp H, Hellmich M, Dahlem KM et al. Ischemic Preconditioning for Prevention of Contrast-Medium-Induced Nephropathy: Randomized Pilot RenPro-Trial (Renal Protection Trial) Circulation 126:296-303, 2012.

65. Bailey TG, Birk GK, Cable NT, Atkinson G, Green DJ, Jones H, Thijssen DH. REMOTE ISCHEMIC PRECONDITONING PREVENTS REDUCTION IN BRACHIAL ARTERY FLOW MEDIATED DILATION AFTER STRENUOUS EXERCISE. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. Jun 22. [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

66. Hittinger E. Ischemic Preconditioning of the Legs Results in Small Improvements in Peak Exercise Capacity at Sea Level, but not Simulated High Altitude in Trained Male Cyclists. Open Access Dissertations. Paper 803., 2012.

67. Kim JC, Shim JK, Lee S et al. Effect of Combined Remote Ischemic Preconditioning and Postconditioning on Pulmonary Function in Valvular Heart Surgery. Chest 142(2):467475, 2012.

68. D’Ascenzo F, Cavallero E, Moretti C, Omede P et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning in coronary artery bypass surgery: a meta-analysis. Heart 98:1267-1271, 2012.

69. Meng R, Asmaro K, Meng L, Liu Y, Ma C, Xi C, Li G, Ren C, Luo Y, Ling F, Jia J, Hua Y, Wang X, Ding Y, Lo EH, Ji X. Upper limb ischemic preconditioning prevents recurrent stroke in intracranial arterial stenosis. Neurology 79:1853-1861, Comment 1842-1843, 2012.

70. Richard Engbersen, Niels P Riksen, Marc J Mol, Bert Bravenboer, Otto C Boerman, Patrick Meijer, Wim JG Oyen, Cees Tack, Gerard A Rongen and Paul Smits. Improved resistance to ischemia and reperfusion, but impaired protection by ischemic preconditioning in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Cardiovascular Diabetology 11:124, 2012. 

71. Hoole S, Watson W, Brown A, Davies W, Dutka D. Remote ischemic preconditioning improves outcome out to 6-years following elective percutaneous coronary intervention: the CRISP-Stent trial. Abstract TCT-614 for 2012 TCT, J Am Coll Cardiol 60(17S), B178, 2012.

72. Sloth AD, Schmidt MR, Munk K, Kharbanda RK, Redington AN, Pedersen L, Sørensen HT, Bøtker HE. Remote Ischemic Perconditioning Improves Long-Term Clinical Outcome in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Abstract TCT-63 for 2012 TCT, J Am Coll Cardiol 60(17S), 2012.

73. Hepponstall M, Ignjatovic V, Binos S, Monagle P, Jones B, et al. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) Modifies Plasma Proteome in Humans. PLoS ONE 7(11): e48284, 2012.

74. Thielmann M, Kottenberg E, Musiolik J, Wendt D, Gedik N, Schlüter M, Pasa S, Dohle DS, Tsagakis K, Kleinbongard P, Peters J, Jakob H, Heusch G. Prognostic Benefit from Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in 300 Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Presentation 14034, AHA Scientific Sessions, 2012.

75. Ghaemian A, Nouraei SM, Abdollahian F, Naghshvar F, Giussani DA, Nouraei SR. Remote ischemic preconditioning in percutaneous coronary revascularization: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 20(5):548-554, 2012.

76. Jensen RV, Zachara NE, Nielsen PH, Kimose HH, Kristiansen SB, Botker HE. Impact of O- GlcNAc on cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Cardiovasc Res (published online Dec 1), 2012.

77. Luca MC, Liuni A, McLaughlin K, Gori T, Parker JD. Daily Ischemic Preconditioning Provides Sustained Protection From IschemiaReperfusion Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: A Human Study. J Am Heart Assoc 2:e000075, 2013.

78. Munckhof I, Riksen N, Seeger JPH, Schreuder TH, et al. Aging attenuates the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning against endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol [Epub ahead of print] 2013.

79. Pepe S, Liaw NY, Hepponstall M, etc. Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Phosphorylated Protein Signaling in Children Undergoing Tetralogy of Fallot Repair: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Am Heart Assoc 2:e000095, 2013.

80. Davies WR, Brown AJ, Watson W, McCormick LM, West NE, Dutka DP, Hoole SP. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Improves Outcome at 6 Years After Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The CRISP Stent Trial Long-Term Follow-Up. Circ Cardiovasc Interv [Epub ahead of print], 2013. 

81. Saxena P, Aggarwal S, Misso NL, Passage J et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning down-regulates kinin receptor expression in neutrophils of patients undergoing heart surgery. Interactive Cardiovasc and Thorac Surg 1-6, 2013.

82. Ahmed RM, Mohamed EH, Ashraf M, Maithili S, Nabil F, Rami R, Mohamed TI. Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on serum troponin T level following elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv [Epub ahead of publication], 2013. 

Animal Studies

1. K. Przyklenk et al. Regional ischemic “preconditioning” protects remote virgin myocardium from subsequent sustained coronary occlusion. Circulation 87:893-899, 1993.

2. Gürke L, Marx A, Harder F, Heberer M. Ischemic preconditioning in surgery of extremities: experimental studies. Chirurg 67(8):839-42, 1996.

3. Gürke L, Marx A, Sutter PM, Frentzel A, Salm T, Harder F, Seelig J, Heberer M. Ischemic preconditioning improves post-ischemic skeletal muscle function. Am Surg 62(5):391-4, 1996.

4. Oxman T, Arad M, Klein R, Avazov N, Rabinowitz B. Limb ischemia preconditions the heart against reperfusion tachyarrhythmia. Am J Physiol 273(4 Pt 2):H1707-H1712, 1997.

5. Takaoka A et al. Renal ischemia/reperfusion remotely improves myocardial energy metabolism during myocardial ischemia via adenosine receptors in rabbits: effects of “remote preconditioning”. JACC 33;2:556-564, 1999.

6. Schoemaker RG, Van Heijningen CL. Bradykinin mediates cardiac preconditioning at a distance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 278:H1571-H1576, 2000.

7. Park KM et al. Prevention of kidney ischemia/reperfusion-induced functional injury and JNK, p38and MARK kinase activation by remote ischemic pretreatment. J Biol Chem 276;15:11870-11876, 2001.

8. Petrishcheva NN, Vlasova TD, Sipovsky VG, Kurapeeva DI, Galagudza MM. Does nitric oxide generation contribute to the mechanism of remote ischemic preconditioning? Pathophysiology 7:271-274, 2001.

9. Wolfrum S et al. Remote preconditioning protects the heart by activating myocardial PKCe-isoform. Cardiovasc Res 55:583-589, 2002. 

10. Harkin DW, Barros D'Sa AA, McCallion K, Hoper M, Campbell FC. Ischemic preconditioning before lower limb ischemia--reperfusion protects against acute lung injury. J Vasc Surg 35(6):1264-1273, 2002. 

11. Bushell AJ, Klenerman L, Taylor S, Davies H, Grierson I, Heliwell TR, Jackson MJ. Ischaemic preconditioning of skeletal muscle. J Bone Joint Surg 84-B:1184-1188, 2002.

12. Weinbrenner C et al. Remote preconditioning by infrarenal occlusion of the aorta protects the heart from infarction: a newly identified non-neuronal but PKC-dependent pathway. Cardiovasc Res 55:590-601, 2002.

13. Addison PD, Neligan PC, Ashrafpour H, Khan A, Zhong A, Moses M, Forrest CR, Pang CY. Noninvasive remote ischemic preconditioning for global protection of skeletal muscle against infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285(4):H1435-H1443, 2003.

14. Weinbrenner C, Schulze F, Sarvary L, Strasser RH. Remote preconditioning by infrarenal aortic occlusion is operative via δ1-opioid receptors and free radicals in vivo in the rat heart. Cardiovasc Res 61:591-599, 2004.

15. Cevrioglu AS, Yilmaz S, Koken T, Tokyol C, Yilmazer M, Fenkci IV. Comparison of the effects of low intra-abdominal pressure and ischaemic preconditioning on the generation of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines during laparoscopy in rats. Hum Reprod 19(9):2144-2151, 2004.

16. Vlasov TD, Korzhevskii DE, Poliakova EA. Ischemic adaptation of the rat brain as a method for protection of endothelium from ischemic reperfusion injury [in Russian]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 90(1):40-8, 2004.

17. Li G et al. Myocardial protection by remote preconditioning: the role of nuclear factor kappa-B p105 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 26:968-973, 2004.

18. Kristiansen SB et al. Remote preconditioning reduces ischemic injury in the explanted heart by a KATP channel-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288:H1252-H1256, 2005.

19. Vlasov TD, Korzhevskii DE, Polyakova EA. Ischemic Preconditioning of the Rat Brain as a Method of Endothelial Protection from Ischemic/Repercussion Injury. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology 35;6:567-572, 2005.

20. Konstantinov IE et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning of the recipient reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury of the denervated donor heart via a KATP channel-dependent mechanism. Transplantation 79:1691-1695, 2005.

21. Konstantinov IE et al. The remote ischemic preconditioning stimulus modifies gene expression in mouse myocardium. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 130:1326-1332, 2005.

22. Moses MA, Addison PD, Neligan PC, Ashrafpour H, Huang N, McAllister SE, Lipa JE, Forrest CR, Pang CY. Inducing late phase of infarct protection in skeletal muscle by remote preconditioning: Efficacy and mechanism. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2005. 

23. Dave KR et al. Remote organ ischemic preconditioning protects brain from ischemic damage following asphyxial cardiac arrest. Neuroscience Letters 404;1-2:170-175, 2006. 

24. Kanoria S et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning of the hind limb reduces experimental liver warm ischaemia-reperfusion injury. British Journal of Surgery 93, 2006.

25. Li Cm et al. Limb ischemic postconditioning protects myocardium from ischemia- reperfusion injury. Scandinavian Cardiovasc J 40;5:312-317, 2006.

26. Kharbanda RK et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning protects against cardiopulmonary bypass-induced tissue injury: a preclinical study. Heart 92:1506-1511, 2006.

27. Zhang SZ et al. [kappa]-Opioid Receptors Mediate Cardioprotection by Remote Preconditioning. Anesthesiology 105(3):550-556, 2006.

28. Schmidt MR et al. Intermittent peripheral tissue ischemia during coronary ischemia reduces myocardial infarction through a KATP -dependent mechanism: first demonstration of remote ischemic perconditioning. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292:H1883-H1890, 2007.

29. Park HJ, Kim W, Youn JH, Paik DJ. Expressions of the proinflammatory cytokines in rat kidney with cyclic episodes of short ischemia-reperfusion of left common iliac artery. Korean J Phys Anthropol [Article in Korean] 20;1:45-57, 2007.

30. Rehni AK et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning and prevention of cerebral injury. Indian J Experimental Biology 45:247-252, 2007.

31. Thaveau F, Zoll J, Rouyer O, Chafke N, Kretz JG, Piquard F, Geny B. Ischemic preconditioning specifically restores complexes I and II activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in ischemic skeletal muscle. J Vasc Surg 46;3:541-547, 2007.

32. Andreka G et al. Remote ischaemic postconditioning protects the heart during myocardial infarction in pigs. Heart 93:749-752, 2007.

33. Heidbreder M et al. Remote vs. ischaemic preconditioning: the differential role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Cardiovasc Res 78:108-115, 2008.

34. Jo JY, Seo YK, Jeon SK, Paik DJ. Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on the Expressions of NOS and Akt in the Rat Myocardium. Korean J Phys Anthropol [Article in Korean]. 21;1:41-54, 2008.

35. Peng Y, Li SJ, Wu YN, Jiao JJ, Liu YX, Lou JS. Effects of noninvasive limb ischemic preconditioning on anti-stress ability in mice. Article in Chinese. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 24;4:448-451, 2008.

36. Wang L, Oka N, Tropak M, Callahan J, Lee J, Wilson G, Redington A, Caldarone CA. Remote ischemic preconditioning elaborates a transferable blood-borne effector that protects mitochondrial structure and function and preserves myocardial performance after neonatal cardioplegic arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 136:335-342, 2008.

37. Zhao JL et al. Remote periconditioning reduces myocardial no-reflow by the activation of a KATP channel via inhibition of Rho-kinase. Int J Cardiol 133;2:179-184, 2009. 

38. Li SJ et al. Noninvasive limb ischemic preconditioning protects against myocardial I/R injury in rats. J Surg Research (article in press), 2009.

39. Xu J, Wang NF, Zhang SZ, Gao Q, Xia Q. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter participates in remote preconditioning induced cardioprotection in rat hearts subjected to ischemia and reperfusion. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 25;1:50-54, 2009.

40. Ren C et al. Limb remote ischemic postconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats. Brain Research 1288:88-94, 2009.

41. Surendra H. The Role of Candidate G-protein Coupled Receptors in Mediating Remote Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning. Master of Science Thesis, University of Toronto, 2009.

42. Lujan HL et al. Partial Hindlimb Occlusion Reduced the Susceptibility to Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia in Conscious Rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacology and Therapeutics 14; 3:199-206, 2009.

43. Su B et al. Cannabinoid 1 receptor mediation of spinal cord ischemic tolerance induced by limb remote ischemic preconditioning in rats. J Thorc Cardiovasc Surg 138:1409-1416, 2009.

44. Fang J et al. Intra-cardiac remote ischemic postconditioning attenuates ischemia- reperfusion injury in rats. Scandinavian Cardiovasc J 43;6:386-394, 2009.

45. Saxena P et al. Does remote ischemic preconditioning prevent delayed hippocampal neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia in rats? Perfusion 24;3:207- 211, 2009.

46. Wang NF et al. Mechanism of cardioprotection induced by non-invasive limb ischemic preconditioning [in Chinese] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 89;28:1999-2002, 2009.

47. Kamota T et al. Ischemic Pre-Conditioning Enhances the Mobilization and Recruitment of Bone Marrow Stem Cells to Protect Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in the Late Phase. JACC 53:1814-1822, 2009.

48. Filho Souza MVP, Loiola RT, Rocha EL, Simão AFL, Gomes AS, Souza MHLP and Ribeiro RA. Hind limb ischemic preconditioning induces an anti-inflammatory response by remote organs in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res, 42;10:921-929, 2009.

49. Iliodromitis EK et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning and postconditioning and the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway. BSC abstract Heart 95:13, 2009.

50. Cao Y, Zhang SZ, Xia Q. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cardioprotection by remote preconditioning (article in Chineese). Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 25;4:516-520, 2009.

51. Chen GX, Tang BY, Liang MY, Liu H, Wu ZK. Remote preconditioning provides myocardial protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury through down regulating the expression of calreticulin in rats [article in Chinese, abstract in English]. Chinese J Pathophysiol 25:\;8:1469-1473, 2009. 

52. Saxena P. Systemic response to local ischaemia: the evolving concept of remote ischaemic preconditioning. PhD Thesis, University of Western Australia, 2009.

53. Wang F et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning by hindlimb occlusion prevents liver ischemic/reperfusion injury: the role of high mobility group box 1. Ann Surg 251;2:292- 299, 2010.

54. Xin P, Zhu W, Li J, Ma S, Wang L, Liu M, Li J, Wei M, Redington AN. Combined local ischemic postconditioning and remote perconditioning recapitulate cardioprotective effects of local ischemic preconditioning. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298: H1819- H1831, 2010.

55. Ponte de Souza Filho MV, Loiola RT, Rocha EL, Simão AFL, Ribeiro RA. Remote ischemic preconditioning improves the survival of rat random-pattern skin flaps. Eur J Plastic Surg [Epub ahead of print], 2010.

56. Dong HL et al. Limb Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Protects the Spinal Cord from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: A Newly Identified Nonneuronal but Reactive Oxygen Species-dependent Pathway. Anesthesiology. Mar 8. [Epub ahead of print], 2010.

57. Lim SY, Yellon DM, Hausenloy DJ. The neural and humoral pathways in remote limb ischemic preconditioning. Basic Res Cardiol 105:651-655, 2010.

58. Tapuria, N. Study of the effect of Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning (RIPC) on the early and late phase of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury and the role of haemoxygenase in RIPC. Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London), 2010.

59. Yannopoulos FS, Mäkelä T, Niemelä E, Tuominen H, Lepola P, Alestalo K, Kaakinen H, Kiviluoma K, Anttila V, Juvonen T. Improved Cerebral Recovery From Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest After Remote Ischemic Preconditioning. Ann Thorac Surg 90:182-188, 2010.

60. Erling N Jr, Nakagawa NK, Cruz JW, Zanoni FL, Baptista-Silva JC, Sannomiya P, Poli-de- Figueiredo LF. Microcirculatory effects of local and remote ischemic preconditioning in supraceliac aortic clamping. J Vasc Surg [E-pub ahead of print], 2010.

61. Warle MC, Wever K, te Riet L, Rongen GA, van der Vliet. Remote ischemic preconditioning using the hind limb as remote organ reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury of the kidney in rats. Transplantation 90:40, 2010.

62. Steensrud T, Li J, Dai X, Manlhiot C, Kharbanda R, Tropak MB, Redington AN. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide donor SNAP or nerve transection blocks humoral preconditioning by remote limb ischemia or intra-arterial adenosine. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol [Epub ahead of print] 2010.

63. Gourine A, Mastitskaya S, Gibley MP. Remote preconditioning reflex. Presentation at the ECS congress, 2010.  

64. Arishiro K, Miyamae M, Momota Y, Domae N, Figueredo VM. Remote preconditioning by carotid artery occlusion limits myocardial infarct size: role of MARK. 2010 annual meeting of American Society of Anesthesiologists, 2010.

65. Taliyan R, Singh M, Sharma PL et al. Possible involvement of α1-adrenergic receptor and KATP channels in cardioprotective effect of remote aortic preconditioning in isolated rat hearts. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 1;3:145-151, 2010.

66. Kingma JG, Simard D, Voisine P, Rouleau JR. Impact of the nervous system on remote preconditioning mediated Cardioprotection in isoflurane anesthetized dogs. Abstract Canadian Cardiovascular Congress 2010.

67. Zhu XN, Yuan HJ, Wu YN, Kang Y, Jiao JJ et al. Non-invasive limb ischemic preconditioning reduces oxidative stress and attenuates myocardium ischemia- reperfusion injury in diabetic rats. Free Radic Res [Epub ahead of print] 2010.

68. Wu YN, Yu H, Zhu XH, Yuan HJ, Kang Y, Jiao JJ, Gao WZ, Liu YX, Lou JS. Noninvasive delayed limb ischemic preconditioning attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by a mitochondrial K(ATP) channel-dependent mechanism. Physiol Res [Epub ahead of print], 2010.

69. Rehni AK, Singh TG, Behl N, Arora S. Possible involvement of ubiquitin proteasome system and other proteases in acute and delayed aspects of ischemic preconditioning of brain in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 33;12:1953-1957, 2010.

70. Li J, Xuan W, Yan R, Tropak MB, Jean-St-Michel E, Liang W, Gladstone R, Backx PH, Kharbanda RK, Redington AN. Remote preconditioning provides potent cardioprotection via PI3k/Akt activation and is associated with nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Clin Sci 2010.

71. Hartmann P, Varga R, Zobolyák Z, Héger J, Csősz B, Németh I, Rázga Z, Vízler C, Garab D, Sántha P, Jancsó G, Boros M, Szabó A. Anti-inflammatory effects of limb ischaemic preconditioning are mediated by sensory nerve activation in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol [Epub ahead of print], Dec 2010.

72. Sharma A, Munajjam A, Vaishnav B, Sharma R, Kishore K, Sharma A, Sharma A, Sharma D, Kumari R, Tiwari A, Srinivasan BP, and Agarwal S. Remote preconditioning by aortic constriction: affords cardioprotection as classical or other remote ischemic preconditioning? Role of iNOS. Available from Nature Precedings, 2011.

73. Lotz C, Lazariotto M, Redel A, Smul TM, Stumpner J, Blomeyer C, Tischer-Zeitz T, Schmidt J, Pociej J, Roewer N, Kehl F, Lange M. Activation of peroxisome-proliferator- activated receptors and mediates remote ischemic preconditioning against myocardial infarction in vivo. Exp Biol Med 236: 113122, 2011.  

74. Zhou Y, Fathali N, Lekic T, Ostrowski RP, Chen C, Martin RD, Tang J, Zhang JH. Remote Limb Ischemic Postconditioning Protects Against Neonatal HypoxicIschemic Brain Injury in Rat Pups by the Opioid Receptor/Akt Pathway. Stroke 42:439-444, 2011.

75. Abu-Amara M, Yang SY, Quaglia A, Rowley P, Tapuria N, Seifalian AM, Fuller BJ, Davidson BR. Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on liver ischemia/reperfusion injury using a new mouse model. Liver Transpl 17;1:70-82, 2011.

76. Abu-Amara M, Yang SY, Quaglia A, Rowley P, Fuller B, Seifalian A, Davidson B. The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis in remote ischaemic preconditioning of the mouse liver. Liver Transpl, 2011.

77. Jensen HA, Loukogeorgakis S, Yannopoulos F, Rimpiläinen E, Petzold A, Tuominen H, Lepola P, MacAllister RJ, Deanfield JE, Mäkelä T, Alestalo K, Kiviluoma K, Anttila V, Tsang V, Juvonen T. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Protects the Brain Against Injury After Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest. Circulation 123;714-721, 2011.

78. Jan WC, Chen CH, Tsai PS, Huang CJ. Limb ischemic preconditioning mitigates lung injury induced by haemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in rats. Resuscitation 82(6):760-6, 2011.

79. Voucharas C, Lazou A, Triposkiadis F, Tsilimingas N. Remote preconditioning in normal and hypertrophic rat hearts. J Cardiothorac Surg 6;34, 2011.

80. Wei M, Xin P, Li S, Tao J, Li Y, Li J, Liu M, Li J, Zhu W, Redington AN. Repeated Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Protects Against Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling and Improves Survival in a Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction. Circ Res [Epub ahead of print], 2011.

81. Abu-Amara M, Yang SY, Quaglia A, Rowley P, Fuller B, Seifalian A, Davidson B. Role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in remote ischemic preconditioning of the mouse liver. Liver Transpl 17;5: 610 619, 2011.

82. AbuAmara M, Yang SU, Quaglia A, Rowley P, De Mel A, Tapuria N, Seifalian A, Davidson B, Fuller B. Nitric oxide is an essential mediator of the protective effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning in a mouse model of liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Clinical Science 121:257266, 2011.

83. Ren C, Gao M, Dornbos D, Ding Y, Zeng X, Luo Y, Ji X. Remote ischemic post-conditioning reduced brain damage in experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury. Neurological Research 33; 5:514-519, 2011.

84. Tropak MB, Shi H, Li J, Dai X, Redington AN, Askalan R. Potent neuroprotection induced by remote preconditioning in a rat model of neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 142:233-235, 2011.

85. Hahn CD, Manlhiot C, Schmidt MR, Nielsen TT, Redington AN. Remote ischemic per- conditioning: a novel therapy for acute stroke? Stroke 42: 2960-2962, 2011. 

86. Björnsson B, Winbladh A, Bojmar L, Trulsson LM, Olsson H, Sundqvist T, Gullstrand P, Sandström P. Remote or Conventional Ischemic Preconditioning Local Liver Metabolism in Rats Studied with Microdialysis. J Surg Res 22 August 2011.

87. Holzner PA, Kulemann B, Kuesters S, Timme S, Hoeppner J, Hopt UT, Marjanovic G. Impact of remote ischemic preconditioning on wound healing in small bowel anastomoses. World J Gastroenterol 17;10:1308-1316, 2011.

88. Wever KE, Warle MC, Wagener F, Van der Hoorn JW, et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning by brief hind limb ischaemia protects against renal ischaemia- reperfusion injury: the role of adenosine. Nephrol Dial Transplant [Epub ahead of print], 2011.

89. Mansour Z, Bouitbir J, Charles AL. Remote and local ischemic preconditioning equivalently protects rat skeletal muscle mitochondrial function during experimental aortic cross-clamping. J Vasc Surg [Epub ahead of print] 2011.

90. Byrne CJ, McCafferty K, Kieswich J, Harwood S et. al. Ischemic Conditioning Protects the Uremic Heart in a Rodent Model of Myocardial Infarction. Circulation [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

91. Wei D, Ren C, Chen X, Zhao H. The Chronic Protective Effects of Limb Remote Preconditioning and the Underlying Mechanisms Involved in Inflammatory Factors in Rat Stroke. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30892, 2012.

92. Li SJ, Wu YN, Kang Y, Yin YQ, Gao WZ, Liu YX, Lou JS. Delayed myocardial protection by non-invasive limb ischemic preconditioning inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the fibrolysis system. Chirurgia 25;1:11-19, 2012.

93. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on expression of VEGF, MMP-9 and MVD after focal cerebral infarction in rat. (, 2012.

94. Mastitskaya S, Nephtali M, Gourine A, Gilbey MP, Spyer KM, Teschemacher AG, Kasparov S, Trapp S, Ackland GL, Gourine AV. Cardioprotection evoked by remote ischaemic preconditioning is critically dependent on the activity of vagal preganglionic neurons. Cardiovasc Res [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

95. Cai ZP, Parajuli N, Zheng X, Becker L. Remote ischemic preconditioning confers late protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice by upregulating interleukin-10. Basic Res Cardiol 107(4):277, 2012.

96. Soendergaard, P., Krogstrup, N. V., Secher, N. G., Ravlo, K., Keller, A. K., Toennesen, E., Bibby, B. M., Moldrup, U., Ostraat, E. O., Pedersen, M., Jorgensen, T. M., Leuvenink, H., Norregaard, R., Birn, H., Marcussen, N. and Jespersen, B. Improved GFR and renal plasma perfusion following remote ischaemic conditioning in a porcine kidney transplantation model. Transplant International 1432-2277, 2012.  

97. Jensen RV, Støttrup NB, Kristiansen SB, Bøtker HE. Release of a humoral circulating cardioprotective factor by remote ischemic preconditioning is dependent on preserved neural pathways in diabetic patients. Basic Res Cardiol 2012 Sep;107(5):285 [Epub ahead of print] 2012.

98. Jeanneteau J, Hibert P, Martinez MC, Tual-Chalot S, Tamareille S, Furber A, Andriantsitohaina R, Prunier F. Microparticle release in remote ischemic conditioning mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 303(7):H871-H877, 2012.

99. Ding ZM, Wu B, Zhang WQ, Lu XJ, Lin YC, Geng YJ, Miao YF. Neuroprotective Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning and Postconditioning on Global Brain Ischemia in Rats through the Same Effect on Inhibition of Apoptosis. Int J Mol Sci 13(5): 60896101, 2012.

100. Wever KE, Masereeuw R, Wagener FA, Verweij VGM, Peters JGP et al. Humoral signalling compounds in remote ischaemic preconditioning of the kidney, a role for the opioid receptor. Nephrol Dial Transplant [Epub], 2013.

101. Gao J, Zhao L, Wang Y, Teng Q, Liang L, Zhang J. Effect of limb ischemic preconditioning on myocardial apoptosis-related proteins in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Exp Ther Medicine [Epub ahead of print], 2013. 

Reviews and Editorials 

1. Pong K. Ischaemic preconditioning: therapeutic implications for stroke? Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 8;2:125-139, 2004.

2. Küntscher MV et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning of flaps: a review. Microsurgery 25:346-352, 2005.

3. Gross GJ. Remote preconditioning and delayed cardioprotection in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289:R1562-R1563, 2005.

4. Konstantinov I et al. Linking gene expression, nuclear factor kappa B, remote ischemic preconditioning and transplantation: a quest for an elusive holy grail or a road to an amazing discovery? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 131:507-509, 2006.

5. Burdess A et al. Harnessing the preconditioning phenomenon: does remote organ ischaemia provide the answer? Heart 92:1367-1368, 2006.

6. Walsh SR, Tang T, Sadat U, Dutka DP, Gaunt ME. Cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning. Br J Anaesthesia 99;5:611-616, 2007.

7. Kanoria S, Jalan R, Seifalian AM, Williams R, Davidson BR. Protocols and mechanisms for remote ischemic preconditioning: a novel method for reducing ischemia reperfusion injury. Transplantation 84(4):445-458, 2007. 

8. Hausenloy DJ, Yellon DM. Remote ischaemic preconditioning: underlying mechanisms and clinical application. Cardiovasc Res 79:377-386, 2008.

9. Tapuria N, Kumar Y, Habib MM, Amara MA, Seifalian AM, Davidson BR. Remote ischemic preconditioning: a novel protective method from ischemia reperfusion injury a review. J Surg Res 150;2:304-330, 2008.

10. Takagi H et al. Review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials of remote ischemic preconditioning in cardiovascular surgery. Am J Cardiol 102:1487-1488, 2008.

11. Dirnagl U, Meisel A. Endogenous neuroprotection: mitochondria as gateways to cerebral preconditioning? Neuropharmacology 55(3):334-344, 2008.

12. Obrenovitch TP. Molecular physiology of preconditioning-induced brain tolerance to ischemia. Physiol Rev 88:211-247, 2008.

13. Kloner RA. Clinical application of remote ischemic preconditioning. Circulation 119:776- 778, 2009.

14. Walsh SR, Tang TY, Sadat U, Gaunt ME. Remote ischemic preconditioning in major vascular surgery. J Vasc Surg 49:240-243, 2009.

15. Rahman I et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning the current best hope for improved myocardial protection in cardiac surgery. Heart 95:1553-1555, 2009.

16. Kharbanda RK, Nielsen TT, Redington AN. Translation of remote ischemic preconditioning into clinical practice. Lancet 374:1557-1565, 2009.

17. Maslov LN, Lishmanov IuB. Cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning. [Article in Russian] Angiol Sosud Khir. 15(3):141-51, 2009.

18. Maslov LN, Kolar F, Krieg T. Remote ischemic preconditioning. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 40(4):64- 78, 2009.

19. Sadat U. Signaling pathways of cardioprotective ischemic preconditioning. Int J Surg 7;6:490-498, 2009.

20. Heusch G. No RISK no ... cardioprotection? A critical perspective. Cardiovasc Res 84;2:173-175, 2009.

21. Valen G. Extracardiac approaches to protecting the heart. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 35:651-657, 2009.

22. Lazaris AM, Maheras AN, Vasdekis SN. Remote ischemic preconditioning: myth or reality? J Endovasc Ther 16(6):694-5, 2009.

23. Prasad A et al. Reperfusion injury, microvascular dysfunction, and cardioprotection. The “dark” side of reperfusion. Circulation 120:2105-2112, 2009.

24. Magill P. et al. Preconditioning and its clinical potential. Ir J Med Sci 178;2:129-134, 2009.

25. Dirnagl U, Becker K, Meisel A. Preconditioning and tolerance against cerebral ischaemia: from experimental strategies to clinical use. Lancet Neurol 8;4: 398412, 2009. 

26. Rohilla A, Rohilla S, Singh G, Singh R. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning: a novel approach to cardioprotection. J Pharm Res 3;1:132-140, 2010.

27. Saxena P. et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning: evolution of the concept, mechanisms and clinical application. J Card Surg 25;1:127-134, 2010.

28. Keep RF et al. Is there a place for cerebral preconditioning in humans? Translational Stroke Research 1;1: 418, 2010.

29. Abete P, Cacciatore F, Testa G, Della-Morte D, Galizia G, Ferrara N, Rengo F. Clinical application of ischemic preconditioning in the elderly. Dose Response 8;1:34-40, 2009.

30. Walsh SR, Tang TY, Cooper DG, Sadat U, Gaunt ME. Remote ischemic preconditioning will reduce graft-related events after surgical infrainguinal revascularization: evidence- based surgery hypothesis. Surgery [Epub ahead of print], May 2010.

31. Kharbanda RK. Cardiac conditioning: a review of evolving strategies to reduce ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Heart 96:1179-1186, 2010.

32. Kitakaze M. How to mediate cardioprotection in ischemic hearts accumulated evidence of basic research should translate to clinical medicine. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther [Epub ahead of print] 2010.

33. Lavi S, Lavi R. Conditioning of the heart: from pharmacological interventions to local and remote protection possible implications for clinical practice. Int J Cardiol [Epub ahead of print] 2010.

34. Zimmerman RF. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Is the Groove in the Heart? Am J Kidney Dis 56;6:1019-1022, 2010.

35. Fairbanks SL, Brambrink AM. Preconditioning and postconditioning for neuroprotection: the most recent evidence. Clin Anesthesiol 24;4:521-534, 2010.

36. Ozeke O, Gungor M, Ozer C. Is Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Triggered by Intermittent Claudication Secondary to Peripheral Arterial Disease Responsible for Preventing Early Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery? Ann Thorac Surg 91:333-334, 2011.

37. Abu-Amara M, Yang SY, Seifalian AM, Fuller B, Davidson BR. Remote ischemic preconditioning by hindlimb occlusion prevents liver ischemic/reperfusion injury. Letter to the editor. Ann Surg [Epub ahed of print], 2011.

38. Hausenloy DJ, Yellon DM. The therapeutic potential of ischemic conditioning: an update. Nature Reviews Cardiology 8:619-629, 2011.

39. Caldarone CA. Ischemic preconditioning: an interesting concept or a clinical reality. Society for Pediatric Anesthesia, Winter Meeting, 2011.

40. Babu GG, Walker GM, Yellon DM, Hausenloy DJ. Peri-procedural myocardial injury during percutaneous coronary intervention: an important target for cardioprotection. Eur Heart J 32:23-32, 2011. 

41. Przyklenk K, Whittaker P. Remote ischemic preconditioning: current knowledge, unresolved questions, and future priorities. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 16(3-4):255- 259, 2011.

42. Endre ZH. Renal ischemic preconditioning: finally some good news for prevention of acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 80, 796-798, 2011.

43. Mergenthaler P. and Dirnagl U. Protective conditioning of the brain: Expressway or roadblock? J Physiol 589(Pt 17):4147-4155, 2011.

44. Xiong J, Liao X, Xue FS, Yuan YJ, Wang Q, Liu JH. Remote ischemia conditioning-an endogenous cardioprotective strategy from outside the heart. Chin Med J 124(14):2209- 2215, 2011.

45. Veighey K, MacAllister RJ. Clinical Applications of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning.. Cardiology Research and Practice Volume 2012, Article ID 620681, 9 pages, 2012.

46. Marczaka J, Nowickia R, Kulbackab J, Saczkob J. Is remote ischaemic preconditioning of benefit to patients undergoing cardiac surgery? Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery 0:16, 2012.

47. Alreja G, Bugano D, Lotfi A. Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Myocardial and Renal Injury: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Inv Cardiol 24;2:42- 48, 2012.

48. Lim SY, Hausenloy DJ. Remote ischemic conditioning: from bench to bedside. Front Physio 3:27, 2012.

49. Wever KE, Menting TP, Rovers M, van der Vliet JA, Rongen GA, et al. Ischemic Preconditioning in the Animal Kidney, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 7(2): e32296, 2012.

50. Brevoord D, Kranke P, Kuijpers M, Weber N, Hollmann M, et al. Remote Ischemic Conditioning to Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 7(7): e42179, 2012.

51. Hausenloy DJ. Conditioning the heart to prevent myocardial reperfusion injury during PPCI. Eur Heart J: Acute Cardiovascular Care 1(1) 1332, 2012.

52. Braunwald E. The treatment of acute myocardial infarction: the Past, the Present, and the Future. Eur Heart J: Acute Cardiovascular Care 1(1) 912, 2012.

53. Veighey K, Macallister RJ. Clinical applications of remote ischemic preconditioning. Cardiology Research and Practice Article ID 620681, 9 pages, 2012.

54. Szijártó A, Czigány Z, Turóczi Z, Harsányi L. Remote ischemic preconditioning - a simple, low-risk method to decrease ischemic reperfusion injury: models, protocols and mechanistic background. A review. J Surg Res. [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

55. Thielmann M, Wendt D, Tsagakis K, Price V, Dohle DS, Pasa S, Kottenberg E. Remote ischemic preconditioning: the surgeon's perspective. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). Oct 1. [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

56. Yetgin T, Manintveld OC, Groen F, Tas B, Kappetein, AP, van Geuns RJ, Zijlstra F, Duncker DJ. The Emerging Application of Remote Ischemic Conditioning in the Clinical Arena. Cardiology in Review 20(6);279287, 2012. 

57. Heusch G. Remote conditioning: the future of cardioprotection? J Cardiovasc Med 14:176179, 2013.

58. Przyklenk K, Whittaker P. Genesis of remote conditioning: action at a distance – ‘hypotheses non fingo’? J Cardiovasc Med 14:180186, 2013.

59. Thielmann M, Wendt D, Tsagakis K, Price V. Remote ischemic preconditioning: the surgeon’s perspective. J Cardiovasc Med 14:187192, 2013.

60. Candilio L, Malik A, Hausenloy DJ. Protection of organs other than the heart by remote ischemic conditioning. J Cardiovasc Med 14:193205, 2013.

61. Li L, Li G, Yu C, Li Y. The role of remote ischemic preconditioning on postoperative kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac and vascular interventions: a meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Surg 8;43, 2013.

62. Sabbagh S, Salzman MMH, Kloner RA, Simkhovich BZ, Rezkalla SH. Remote ischemic preconditioning for coronary artery bypass graft operations. Ann Thorac Surg [Epub ahead of print], 2013. 

Supplemental literature


Clinical studies

  1. Anzai T et al. Preinfarction angina as a major predictor of left ventricular function and long-term prognosis after a first Q-wave myocardial infarction. JACC 26;2:319-327, 1995.

  2. Kloner RA et al. Prospective temporal analysis of the onset of preinfarction angina versus outcome: an ancillary study in TIMI-9B. Circulation 97:1042-1045, 1998.

  3. Noda T et al. Evidence for the delayed effect in human ischemic preconditioning. Prospective multicenter study for preconditioning in acute myocardial infarction. JACC 34;7:1966-1974, 1999.

  4. Papadopoulos CE et al. Preconditioning reduces QTc value in patients with first non-ST- segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). A.N.E. 8;4:275-283, 2003.

  5. Papadopoulos CE et al. Evidence of ischemic preconditioning in patients experiencing first non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Int J Cardiol 92:209-217, 2003.

  6. Solomon SD et al. Angina pectoris prior to myocardial infarction protects against subsequent left ventricular remodeling. JACC 43;9:1511-1514, 2004.

  7. Amsterdam EA, Schaefer S. Ischemic preconditioning in coronary heart disease: a therapeutic golden fleece? JACC 43;9:1515-1516, 2004.

  8. Sitzer M et al. Transient ischaemic attack preceding anterior circulation infarction is independently associated with favorable outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:659-660, 2004.

  9. Papadopoulos CE et al. Multiple episodes of ischemic preconditioning are not associated with loss of benefit: preliminary clinical experience. Can J Cardiol 21;14:1291-1295, 2005.

  10. Shu XH et al. Preinfarction angina preserves myocardial microcirculation and function after revascularization. Chinese Medical Journal 118;13:1105-1108, 2005.

  11. Kosuge M et al. Beneficial effect of preinfarction angina on in-hospital outcome is preserved in elderly patients undergoing coronary intervention for anterior acute myocardial infarction. Circ J 69:630-635, 2005.

  12. Evrengul H et al. The effect of preinfarction angina on clinical reperfusion time in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving successful thrombolytic therapy. Can J Cardiol 21;11:915-920, 2005.

  13. Iglesias-Garriz I et al. Preinfarction angina limits myocardial infarction size in nondiabetic patients treated with primary coronary angioplasty. Chest 127:1116-1121, 2005. 

  14. Iglesias-Garriz I et al. In-hospital mortality and early preinfarction angina: a meta- analysis of published studies. Rev Esp Cardiol 58;5:484-490, 2005.

  15. Tamura A et al. Effect of preinfarction angina pectoris on myocardial blush grade after reperfusion in first anterior wall acute myocardial infarction. Circ J 70:698-702, 2006.

  16. Örem C et al. Evaluation of left ventricular function using Tei index in patients with preinfarction angina. Anadolu Kardiyol Degr 6:3-8, 2006.

  17. Jesel L, Morel O, Ohlmann P et al. Role of pre-infarction angina and inflammatory status in the extent of microvascular obstruction detected by MRI in myocardial infarction patients treated by PCI. Int J Cardiol 121:139-147, 2007.

  18. Mladenovic ZT et al. The cardioprotective role of preinfarction angina, as shown in outcomes of patients after first myocardial infarction. Texas Heart Inst J 35;4:413-418, 2008.

  19. Kaneko H et al. Role of Ischemic Preconditioning and Inflammatory Response in the Development of Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias After Reperfused ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Eur J Cardiovasc Nursing 15;9:775-781, 2009.

  20. Papadopoulos CE, Zioutas DG, Giannakoulas GA, Matsiras S, Karamitsos TD, Karvounis HI, Geleris P, Stiliadis I. Beneficial effect of ischemic preconditioning on post-infarction left ventricular remodeling and global left ventricular function. Cardiovasc Revasc Medicine, [Epub ahead of print], 2011. 



Clinical studies

  1. Weih M et al. Attenuated stroke severity after prodromal TIA: a role of ischemic tolerance in the brain? Stroke 30:851-1854, 1999.

  2. Moncayo J et al. Do transient ischemic attacks have a neuroprotective effect? Neurology 54:2089-2094, 2000.

  3. Wegener S. et al. Transient ischemic attacks prior to ischemic stroke: preconditioning the human brain? A multicenter magnetic resonance imaging study. Stroke 35:616-621, 2004.

  4. Johnston SC. Ischemic preconditioning from transient ischemic attacks? Stroke 35[suppl 1]:2680-2682, 2004. 



Animal studies

  1. Steven Roth, Bing Li, Pearl S. Rosenbaum, Himanshu Gupta, Ira M. Goldstein, Kelly M. Maxwell, and Jeffrey M. Gidday. Preconditioning Provides Complete Protection against Retinal Ischemic Injury in Rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 39:777-785, 1998.

  2. Fernandez DC, Bordone MP, Chianelli MS, Rosenstein RE. Retinal neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion damage induced by postconditioning. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50(8):3922-30, 2009.

  3. Fernandez DC, Sande PH, Chianelli MS, Aldana Marcos HJ, Rosenstein RE. Induction of ischemic tolerance protects the retina from diabetic retinopathy. Am J Pathol 178(5):2264-74, 2011.

  4. Dreixler JC, Poston JN, Shaikh AR, Alexander M, Tupper KY, Marcet MM, Bernaudin M, Roth S. Delayed post-ischemic conditioning significantly improves the outcome after retinal ischemia. Exp Eye Res 92(6):521-7, 2011.

  5. Diego C. Fernandez, Laura A. Pasquini, Dami n Dorfman, Hern n J. Aldana Marcos, Ruth E. Rosenstein. Ischemic Conditioning Protects from Axoglial Alterations of the Optic Pathway Induced by Experimental Diabetes in Rats. PLoS ONE 7(12): e51966, 2012. 



Animal studies

1. Belforte N, Sande PH, de Zavalía N, Fernandez DC, Silberman DM, Chianelli MS, Rosenstein RE. Ischemic tolerance protects the rat retina from glaucomatous damage. PLoS One. 6(8):e23763, 2011.